Italian - interesting facts
The Italian language, or "Italiano," is a rich and expressive tongue, as musically rhythmic as it is historically deep. It's the language of Dante, Michelangelo, and Verdi — and also the language of everyday Italians who express their thoughts and feelings with a vivacity that few languages can match.
Belonging to the Romance language family, Italian is a direct offshoot of the Latin the Romans spoke. It shares this lineage with French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian. Despite this shared heritage, each language is distinct, with Italian particularly noted for its beautiful pronunciation and melodic intonation.
Italian is primarily spoken in Italy and by the Italian diaspora spread around the globe. It has roughly 65 million native speakers and around 85 million speakers when you consider second-language speakers. Despite its limited geographic scope compared to other global languages, Italian's cultural significance cannot be overstated. Its influence is particularly felt in music, food, design, and, of course, in the Roman Catholic Church, where it serves as one of the official languages.
Italy's political history has deeply influenced the language. Italy was a collection of city-states and regions until it was unified in 1861. Consequently, Italy is a tapestry of dialects and local languages, which often differ profoundly from region to region. The 'standard' Italian we know today is primarily based on the Tuscan dialect, largely thanks to the literary works of authors such as Dante Alighieri and Francesco Petrarca who wrote in their local dialect, giving it prestige.
Italian also plays an outsized role in the world of music. It's the language of opera, and musical terminology worldwide is predominantly Italian. Words like 'piano,' 'forte,' 'allegro,' and 'adagio' are understood by musicians regardless of their nationality. This ubiquity in music reflects Italian's longstanding cultural influence.
Curiously, the letter "j" (i or lunga in Italian) is not commonly used in standard Italian. It only appears in loanwords and foreign names, and its sound is typically represented by the letter "i." Similarly, "k" (cappa), "w" (vu doppia), "x" (ics), and "y" (ipsilon or i greca) are not part of the standard Italian alphabet and are mainly used in loanwords and foreign names. However, these letters are starting to make an appearance in native Italian words due to the influence of foreign languages and the internet.
Despite Italy's modest size, the language has a surprising number of dialects. Some of these, like Sicilian and Venetian, are so different from standard Italian that they might as well be considered separate languages. This linguistic diversity is a testament to the rich tapestry of cultures that make up the Italian peninsula.
In the digital era, Italian maintains its significance. It ranks among the top 10 languages used on the internet, which is an impressive feat considering the size of its speaker population compared to languages like Chinese, Spanish, or English.
Learning Italian opens up not just the language itself, but a world of rich history, vibrant culture, and an understanding of a people known for their love of life. As one dives into its melodious sounds and rhythmic intonations, one discovers not just a language, but an embodiment of the 'dolce vita,' the sweet life that Italians are so famous for.
Influence of Italian on English
Italian has significantly influenced the English language, a testament to the cultural exchange between England and Italy that spans centuries. This impact is particularly noticeable in specific domains like food, music, art, and literature.
In the realm of gastronomy, countless Italian words have entered the English language. Words like 'pizza,' 'spaghetti,' 'lasagna,' 'macaroni,' 'ravioli,' and 'espresso' are used universally by English speakers, often with little awareness of their Italian origins. The same applies to culinary terms like 'al dente' and 'antipasto.'
The world of music and the performing arts also owes Italians a significant debt. Musical terms like 'allegro,' 'piano,' 'forte,' 'soprano,' 'bass,' 'opera,' and 'concerto' have been adopted directly from Italian. This use of Italian in musical notation and terminology began during the Renaissance and Baroque periods, when Italy was a major cultural hub, and has persisted to the present day.
In literature and other art forms, the influence of Italian is apparent. 'Graffiti,' 'umbrella,' 'balcony,' 'studio,' 'novella,' 'sonnet,' and 'scenario' are all borrowed from Italian. Many of these words entered the English language during the Renaissance, when English poets and scholars, inspired by Italian works, incorporated these terms.
Furthermore, English has been influenced by Italian through idiomatic expressions such as 'la dolce vita' and 'al fresco,' which have been adopted into English parlance to capture concepts in a way that English words alone cannot. In these and many other ways, Italian has left a considerable mark on the English language, enriching it with its distinct vocabulary and expressions.
Your Essential Italian
|please||per favore (per favóre)|
|thank you||grazie (gràtsie)|
|I'm sorry||mi dispiace (mi dispiàce)|
|good morning||buongiorno (buondʒórno)|
|good evening||buonasera (buonaserà)|
|good night||arrivederci (arrivedèrci)|
|how are you?||Come stai? (kóme stài)|
|well||Grazie, sto bene (gràtsie, stò bène)|
|My name is...||Mi chiamo (mi kjàmo)|
|I don't understand||Non capisco (non kapìsko)|
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